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Interactions involving electrons with other subatomic particles are of interest in fields such as chemistry and nuclear physics . The Coulomb force interaction between the positive protons within atomic nuclei and the negative electrons without, allows the composition of the two known as atoms . Ionization or differences in the proportions of negative electrons versus positive nuclei changes the binding energy of an atomic system. The exchange or sharing of the electrons between two or more atoms is the main cause of chemical bonding . [12] In 1838, British natural philosopher Richard Laming first hypothesized the concept of an indivisible quantity of electric charge to explain the chemical properties of atoms. [3] Irish physicist George Johnstone Stoney named this charge 'electron' in 1891, and J. J. Thomson and his team of British physicists identified it as a particle in 1897. [5] [13] [14] Electrons can also participate in nuclear reactions , such as nucleosynthesis in stars , where they are known as beta particles . Electrons can be created through beta decay of radioactive isotopes and in high-energy collisions, for instance when cosmic rays enter the atmosphere. The antiparticle of the electron is called the positron ; it is identical to the electron except that it carries electrical and other charges of the opposite sign. When an electron collides with a positron , both particles can be totally annihilated , producing gamma ray photons .

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